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Saturday, November 1, 2014

i3 Assessment #01: [Sustainability in the Graphic Design/Print Industry]

PART A: Waste Checklist

Develop a checklist for disposing of waste generated in your home/office.
  • Items in your checklist may include printer paper, empty food & drink containers and unwanted food. Include at least 5 items in the checklist.
  • Beside each item describe how each of these can be recycled or reused.

PART B: Identify Hazards

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) identify the potential hazards involved in the use of substance and precautions for safe handling, use, storage and transport.

Scenario: You have a HP Laser Jet 2100 printer in your home/office.
  • Go to http://www.hp.com/go/msds and locate the MSDS for the printer cartridge [part number C4096A-AC]
  • List the hazards identified on the MSDS.
  • What are the instructions for safe handling and storage for the toner?

PART C: Reporting Hazards

Reporting Breaches of Environmental Hazards
  • Name the government agency that breaches of environmental regulations in your State must be reported to
  • Under what circumstances must owners occupiers of land notify the agency?
  • How soon must the agency be notified? (i.e. hours/days/weeks' time frame?)

PART D: Organisational Plans

Follow organisational plans
  • Access a copy of the Australian Government ICT Sustainability Plan 2010-2015.
  • What is the Agency target for the use of internal copy paper per end user (reams per annum) by July 2015?
  • What is the Agency target for the desktop energy usage per end user (kWh per annum by July 2015?)
  • What procedures should be followed to reduce desktop energy usage?

PART E: Improvements to Workplace Practices

Scenario: You are currently employed as a pre-press operator doing mainly desktop publishing jobs ready for print in the art room of a local printing company. ReadyPrint*. You use a number of portable electronic devices such as laptop computers, digital cameras, mobile phones etc. 

Task: Research the options available for sustainable disposal of batteries form the above mentioned portable equipment. Then make suggestions for improvements to current workplace practices at ReadyPrint. Present your research findings and recommendations in a short report (one or two pages).

Use the following structure for your report:
  • Memo heading with:
    • Reciever's name and title
    • Writer's name and title
    • Date
    • Subject of report
  • Introduction which provides some background information to the report. This could include its purpose (the what) and the reason it is being prepared (the why) and a brief background to the work area or team activities.
  • The body of the report, which is the main part of the report. You should use sections with appropriate headings to describe your research, findings, recommendations and likely benefits. You should outline the costs related to your recommendations.
  • The conclusion which summarise and evaluate the findings.
  • Recommendation/s (if required) which list the likely outcomes that should result.

*ReadyPrint is a made-up name 

PART A Waste Checklist: Develop a checklist for disposing of waste generated in your home/office.

It is important how you carry out waste disposal. In today’s world waste material is a common phenomenon. These wastes are harmful to the environment and how you dispose of them depends on how they affect the environment. Proper disposal of waste material helps keep the environment clean.

· Recycling

Recycling is an important part of the waste generated in an office. You can recycle papers, glass, aluminum and plastics. If you want to reduce the volume of your waste material, the best way to do so would be to recycle it.

- Paper: the best way to recycle paper is by using the kerbside recycling service offered by your local council. These 240L bin are collected on a fortnightly basis.

- Glass. By placing it in your kerbside bin you can also recycle it easily.

- Aluminum. This can be also be recycled by placing items in your kerbside bin.

- Plastic too, is recycled in your kerbside council bins.

You may also choose to drop off your recyclable items at your local drop off recycling facility. My local drop off recycling facility for the Pittwater council area is located at the SITA Belrose Resource Recovery Centre in Crozier Ave, Belrose.

· Composting

This is a natural process that is completely free of any hazardous by-products.

- Compost all your lunchtime scraps. Add vegetables and fruit peels.

PART B Identify Hazards:  

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) identify the potential hazards involved in the use of a substance and precautions for safe handling, use, storage and transport.

·  List the hazard identified on the MSDS sheet for the printer cartridge [part number C40986A-AC], for the HP Laser Jet 2100 printer.

Hazards Identification
Acute health effects

Skin contact Unlikely to cause skin irritation.
Eye contact May cause transient slight irritation 
Inhalation Minimal respiratory tract irritation may occur with exposure to large amounts of toner dust.
Ingestion Low acute toxicity. Ingestion is a minor route of entry for intended use of this product.
Potential health effects Routes of exposure Potential routes of exposure under normal use conditions are skin, eye contact and inhalation.
Ingestion is not expected to be a primary route of exposure for this product under normal use conditions.
Chronic health effects Prolonged inhalation of excessive amounts of any dust may cause lung damage. Use of this product as intended does not result in inhalation of excessive amounts of dust. 

Carcinogenicity None of the ingredients have been classified as carcinogens according to EU, IARC, MAK, NTP, OSHA or ACGIH.
Other information This product is not classified as hazardous according to OSHA CFR 1910.1200 or EU Directive 1999/45/EC, as amended.This preparation contains no component classified as Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) or very Persistent and very Bioaccumulative (vPvB) as defined under Regulation (EC) 1907/2006.

·   What are the instructions for safe handling and storage for the toner?

Handling   Keep out of the reach of children. Avoid inhalation of dust and contact with skin and eyes. Use with adequate ventilation. Keep away from excessive heat, sparks, and open flames.
Storage     Keep out of the reach of children. Keep tightly closed and dry. Store away from strong oxidizers.
Store at room temperature.

PART C Reporting Hazards:

·       Name the government agency that breaches of environmental regulation in your 
    State must be reported to.

You must report all breaches of environmental regulation to: NSW Trade and Investment, Environmental Sustainability Unit.

Email: compliance.environment@trade.nsw.gov.au with the following information to assist with our investigation.

- Your name
- Your contact details
- The type of activity
- The time, date and location of activity
- A description, registration numbers and type of any vehicles or plant involved
- Any other information you think is relevant.
  • Under what circumstances must owners and occupiers of land notify the agency?
An environmental incident report is required when an incident causes or threatens material harm to the environment.
  • How soon must the agency be notified? (i.e. hours/days/weeks’ time frame?)
A verbal report must be made to the Department within 24 hours after the titleholder or person becomes aware of the incident. 

A written incident report must be provided to the Department as soon as practicable, but no later than 7 days after the incident (unless the titleholder is otherwise advised by the Department).

PART D Organisational Plans:
-       Australian Government ICT Sustainability Plan 2010 – 2015

· What is the Agency target for the use of internal copy paper per end user (reams per annum) by July 2015?

Target: Internal copy paper per end user (reams per annum) = 9

· What is the Agency target for the desktop energy usage per end user (kWh per annum) by July 2015?

Target: 250kWh or less per annum in desktop energy per end user

· What procedures should be followed to reduce desktop energy usage?

Examples of improving desktop energy efficiency are power management solutions, printer rationalisation and desktop virtualisation. A target of 90 per cent of all desktop computers is to be shut down after hours by July 2010 (or within six months from announcement of this plan), which supports the 250 kWh per annum energy intensity target.

PART E Improvements to Workplace Practices:


To:    ReadyPrint. General Manager
From: Michelle Carroll. Pre-press Manager
Date: 30th October 2014
Subject: Improvements to current workplace practices

It has come to my attention that batteries play a huge part in my daily activity. I use batteries in many of my different platforms, including, my laptop, mobile phone, digital camera and iPad. After working with these portable electronic devices they have led me to examine their environmental impact at the end of their life span and I have prepared these findings for consideration.

There are two types of batteries:

1. Primary batteries: These are the most common battery. They automatically convert chemical energy into electrical energy. These kind of batteries cannot be recharged and are thrown away after use, and

2. Secondary Batteries: These are rechargeable and can be used repeatedly. These are the batteries used in my mobile devices. Although these batteries are rechargeable, secondary batteries may need to be recycled at some stage, when they can no longer be charged.

The Environmental problems that these batteries cause are identified in the waste stream. Batteries are made from a variety of chemicals to power their reactions. Some of these chemicals, such as nickel and cadmium, are highly toxic and can cause damage to humans and the environment.

In particular, they can cause soil and water pollution and endanger wildlife. Therefore, the correct disposal of them is vital.

Landfill is generally where these batteries end up, but regulations that govern the correct disposal differ from State to State. Here in NSW, there are moves underway to establish household battery recycling.

I suggest we contact our local council recycling facility to see if they have any household battery recycling options. Recycling our mobile phone batteries is easy. We just need to request a free satchel from Clean Up Australia by registering on-line at http://mobile.cleanup.org.au/register.html. There are easy to follow instructions on the satchel itself, and we would then just send it back via freepost through Australia Post to Clean Up Australia’s partner Australian Recycling.  

For all our other batteries, SITA provides a variety of options for the safe collections of spent batteries. By calling SITA on 13 13 35, their customer service center will deliver a battery recycling container. We then just place the container in a prominent area here at work for all staff and visitors to fill the container with their used batteries. This is not only helping our company to recycle, but it will encourage others to do so too. Once the container if full, call SITA and they will arrange for its collection and for a replacement container to be left. Please note that a small charge will be applied to cover the collection and recycling costs.

I thank you for your time in reading this memo and hope we can implement these changes as soon as practicable.

Regards, Michelle Carroll

Pre-press Manager


Clean Up Australia, (2009). Why are Batteries Harmful to the Environment? Retrieved from https://www.cleanup.org.au/PDF/au/batteries_final.pdf
Davis, J. (2014). Go Green America. Retrieved from
hp. Living Progress, (2014). Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs). Retrieved from http://www8.hp.com/us/en/hp-information/environment/msds-specs.html?jumpid=re_r138_eco_msds#.VFH9uVvjDgY
Mineral Resources Division. Environmental Incident Reporting Requirements. ESB28 22 October 2007. Retrieved from http://www.resourcesandenergy.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/422953/ESB28-Environmental-Incident-Reporting-Requirements.pdf
NSW Trade and Investment, (2014). Incident reporting. Retrieved from http://www.resourcesandenergy.nsw.gov.au/miners-and-explorers/compliance-and-reporting/incident-reporting
Recycling Near You, (2014). Paper, Cardboard, Phone Books. Retrieved from http://recyclingnearyou.com.au/facility/144/PittwaterNSW
SITA, (2014). Battery Recycling. Retrieved from http://www.sita.com.au/commercial-solutions/resource-recovery-recycling/battery-recycling1/

Friday, October 31, 2014

i3 LA11 Monitoring Targets

Case Study: Setting greenhouse targets

Dubbo Motor Mechanic and Panel Beaters has set a target to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 10% over 3 years and has not been successful. To achieve this it has embarked on a green purchasing policy but only in the administration area. It wants to set a new target as it believes the target is unachievable.

Task: What ideas can you implement to convince the organisation to keep the target and assist in achieving the target?

“When we burn fossil fuels like coal and petroleum gas, carbon dioxide and other gases are released into the atmosphere. These emissions trap heat close to the earth, causing what is known as the ‘greenhouse effect’. If we all work together to drive less, conserve electricity and create less waste, we can reduce our carbon footprint and help fight global warming.” (WikiHow, 2014).

In order for Dubbo Motor Mechanics to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 10%, over a 3-year period, they must firstly figure out how big their carbon footprint currently is. By using a free carbon footprint calculator, a number of factors will be taken into account to calculate exactly how much carbon they are currently using. 

Once this is established, they must then look for ways to make it smaller. Keeping in mind to reflect on the areas that need improvement and those to help in their long-term changes. Remember, even small changes will add up in making big differences.

Below is a list of changes that could help Dubbo Motors see s reduction in their greenhouse gas emission use.

·      Turn off lights and appliances. Rely on natural light during the day. And Shut down computers at night.
·      Unplug appliances when they are not being used. Even the kettle in the staff room will use up power if left plugged in.
·      Use energy saving appliances and globes. Large appliances are responsible for a big portion of energy use. Energy saving models will help to reduce the cost of running them i.e.
-       Refrigerator
-       Microwave
-       Air conditioner in the office
·      Look at how your air conditioner is being used
-       Adjust the thermostat to 20˚C in Winter and 25˚C in Summer
·      Limit the use of hot water. Your hot water can also be limited by turning the water heater to 48˚C, so the water never get unnecessarily hot.
·      Mop the workshop floor, rather than hosing it.
·      Use drip trays to catch liquids and contain and clean up oil and chemical spills as soon as they occur.
·      Store oils, chemicals, paints and solvents in areas that will not allow spill to escape to the environment
·      Regularly check that the containers are not leaking.
·      Never dispose of chemicals into storm water drains
·      Separate different kinds of waste for easy collections and recycling.
·      Use a damp cloth, mist spray or vacuum device to clean brakes – not compressed air
·      Never modify or tamper with vehicle emission systems
·      Conduct all work inside the workshop to limit noise emissions
·      Maintain equipment, such as air compressors, to prevent noise.
·      Recycle waste
-       Metals such as lead, copper and steel, which should be stored in a secure container for collection by a metal recycler.
-       Oil filters, which should be drained and then crushed.
-       Car batteries, which are classified as a ‘hazardous waste’ and should be collected by a licensed contractor.
-       Tyres, which should be stored in a manner to reduce risk of fires.

These points are designed to help Dubbo Motor Mechanics to:

·      Understand the environmental risks and responsibilities associated with automotive servicing and repairs.
·      Take action to improve the environmental management of their operations.
·      Take advantage of the benefits that result from improved environmental practices.


Environmental Action for Automotive Servicing and Repairs. Retrieved from http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/resources/clm/200877_Auto_ServiceRepair.pdf

WikiHow, (2014). How to Reduce Your Greenhouse Gas Emissions, accessed 30th October, 2014, from http://www.wikihow.com/Reduce-Your-Greenhouse-Gas-Emissions

i3 LA10 Triple Bottom Line

  • Use Australian Paper, a large organisation and source its Sustainability Report.
  • Give a brief report of the organisation's triple bottom line.

 Triple bottom line (abbreviated as TBL or 3BL) incorporates the notion of sustainability into business decisions. The TBL is an accounting framework with three dimensions: social, environmental (or ecological) and financial. The TBL dimensions are also commonly called the three Ps: people, planet and profits and are referred to as the ‘three pillars of sustainability’." (Wikipedia, 2014)

Since 1980 Australian Paper have halved CO2 emissions per tonne of paper and reduced water usage by 64% per tonne of paper produced.

In 2008, Australian Paper completed a $600 million upgrade at their Maryvale mill in Gippsland, Victoria, which resulted in significant improvements in energy and water efficiencies, and reduced emissions and onsite hazard risks at the mill.

Australian Paper is committed to reducing their impact on the environment and demonstrates it by way of moving away from fossil fuels and towards renewable energy.
In 2011 their Co2 e per tonne of pulp & paper continued to drop

In 2011 they stated that:
         “In 2012 we will:
·      Develop a stakeholder engagement policy to provide an ongoing framework for our engagement activities
·      Develop formal internal stakeholder engagement processes to reach out to more staff and employees to receive feedback on our sustainability activities and sustainability reporting
·      Provide an online feedback mechanism to which stakeholder can respond to our sustainability report.”

Their 2012 report states their current Certifications:
·      AS 4801 – safety (Maryvale mill)
·      Australian Forestry Standard (AFS) Chain of Custody*#
·      Environmental Choice New Zealand
·      Forest Stewardship Council® Chain of Custody#
·      ISO 9001 – quality management (all operations)
·      ISO 14001 – environmental management (Maryvale and Shoalhaven mills)
·      NATA certified onsite laboratory at Maryvale mill
·      National Carbon Offset Standard (NCOS)#

* AFS is an endorsed national standard recognised by the global Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)
# Recognised product specific certifications

They are members of the following organisations:
·      Australian Forestry Standard Limited
·      Energy Users Association of Australia
·      Australian Forest Products Association (AFPA)
·      Australian Industry Group
·      Australian Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Association (APPITA)
·      CFMEU – Pulp & Paper Industry FFPD Division
·      FSC® Australia
·      Monash University – APPI Foundation
·      National Awards Group
·      Printing Industry Association of Australia (PIAA)
·      Timber Communities Australia (TCA)
·      Victorian Association of Forest Industries (VAFI)
·      WWF’s Global Forest and Trade Network (GFTN)

They continue to make progress on their 2011 sustainability goals and targets and outline their sustainability goals and targets set for 2013.

Future focus
·      Reduce waste going to landfill by less than 20,000m3 per annum
·      Further reduce waste by commencing a leather and rubber glove re-use program at Shoalhaven mill
·      Implement a recycling program for batteries and CFL light bulbs at Shoalhaven mill.
·      Use less than 25 kilolitres of raw water from Moondarra dam per tone of pulp and paper each year.


Australian Paper Sustainability Reports. Accessed 9th August 2014 from http://www.australianpaper.com.au/sustainability/sustainability-reports/

Wikipedia. (2014). Triple bottom line. Accessed 9th August 2014 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triple_bottom_line